Question: What Makes RNA Unstable?

Why is RNA fragile?

While DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose, characterised by the presence of the 2′-hydroxyl group on the pentose ring (Figure 5).

This hydroxyl group make RNA less stable than DNA because it is more susceptible to hydrolysis..

What destroys the viral RNA?

Once the virus is inside human cells, a protein called ZAP can identify viral RNAs by binding to a precise motif, a combination of two nucleotides called CpG. This allows the cell to destroy the viral RNA, thus preventing the virus from multiplying.

Which is the largest RNA?

Originally Answered: What is the longest RNA? The largest eukaryotic rRNA (ribosomal RNA) can be as long as 5,000 nucleotides and that is longer than most mRNA molecules. Because bacterial mRNA is polycistronic (multiple genes on one mRNA) it can be rather long as well.

Why is RNA unstable in alkaline conditions?

RNA is uniquely unstable in alkaline conditions because bases can easily deprotonate the hydrogen from the hydroxyl group on the 2′-carbon atom (Fig.

Which RNA is most stable?

rRNArRNA and tRNA are stable types of RNA. In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, tRNA and rRNA are encoded in the DNA, then copied into long RNA molecules that are cut to release smaller fragments containing the individual mature RNA species.

Is RNA more acidic than DNA?

RNA stays in the aqueous phase since the pkA of its groups is greater than that of DNA (it is more acidic).

What happens to RNA at high pH?

RNA is more resistant to acid hydrolysis compared to DNA. …  The higher the pH(>10), there is extensive deprotonation and this results in denaturation of double stranded DNA.  This alkali lysis method is used in isolation of plasmid DNA from bacterial cell,where this principle is applied. 6.

What is RNA vs DNA?

The DNA is a double-stranded molecule that has a long chain of nucleotides. The RNA is a single-stranded molecule which has a shorter chain of nucleotides. DNA replicates on its own, it is self-replicating. RNA does not replicate on its own.

Why is RNA unstable than DNA?

Adjacent ribose nucleotide bases are chemically attached to one another in a chain via chemical bonds called phosphodiester bonds. Unlike DNA, RNA is usually single-stranded. Additionally, RNA contains ribose sugars rather than deoxyribose sugars, which makes RNA more unstable and more prone to degradation.

What can kill RNA?

Inside cells, there are enzymes that destroy the RNA of viruses. This is called RNA interference. Some blood cells engulf and destroy other virus-infected cells.

Why is RNA not hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid?

Acid hydrolysis removes purin bases from the DNA, thereby unmasking free aldehyde groups. The aldehyde groups then react with Schiff’s reagent, which results in the purple staining. RNA is not hydrolyzed by the HCl treatment and, thus, the reaction is DNA-specific.

Is more stable than RNA?

Due to its deoxyribose sugar, which contains one less oxygen-containing hydroxyl group, DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA, which is useful for a molecule which has the task of keeping genetic information safe. RNA, containing a ribose sugar, is more reactive than DNA and is not stable in alkaline conditions.

How can we protect RNA from degradation?

In order to prevent degradation, RNA samples are generally stored frozen at −20 °C or −80 °C or under liquid nitrogen. However, even at a low temperature, RNA retains some reactivity.

What destroys mRNA?

Histone mRNA degradation begins when a string of uridine molecules are added to the tail end of the molecule — a process known as oligouridylation. This signals a complex of proteins known as the exosome to begin degrading the mRNA.

Is RNA stable at?

RNA is generally stable at -80° C for up to a year without degradation. … For long term storage, RNA samples may also be stored at -20°C as ethanol precipitates.

Which RNA is least abundant?

Although mRNAs are the least abundant class of RNA, they are the most heterogeneous . Ribosomes play an important role in protein synthesis, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), is an important structural component of ribosomes. rRNA is the most abundant type of RNA.

Why is RNA so unstable?

RNA contains ribose sugars rather than deoxyribose sugars. These hydroxyl groups make RNA less stable than DNA because it is more prone to hydrolysis which makes RNA more unstable and more prone to degradation.

What makes RNA reactive and unstable?

RNA is susceptible to this base-catalyzed hydrolysis because the ribose sugar in RNA has a hydroxyl group at the 2′ position. This feature makes RNA chemically unstable compared to DNA, which does not have this 2′ -OH group and thus is not susceptible to base-catalyzed hydrolysis.

How is RNA destroyed?

It is likely that cells employ the new mechanism, called nonstop decay, to target and destroy RNA molecules that contain errors. … In constructing proteins, the mRNA template is transcribed from DNA genes and transported to the ribosomes—the cell’s protein “factories” that are large complexes of protein and RNA.

Why does DNA denature at high pH?

High pH facilitates the denaturation since it interferes with the base-pairing. High pH ( > 11.3) can be used to denature DNA.